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But the big question is what vaccine will Australians get.

They work in different ways and are at different stages of development.

Here’s what you need to know about the major coronavirus vaccines.

A medical student is vaccinated during a trial in Freiburg, Germany.
A medical student is vaccinated during a trial in Freiburg, Germany. (AP)

The vaccine is 95% effective. The Australian government has previously purchased 10 million doses of the Pfizer vaccine.

It should be available to Australians from early to mid-2021, pending local TGA approval.

A vial of Pfizer / BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine ready for administration at Guy's Hospital at the start of the largest immunization program in UK history.
A vial of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine ready for administration at Guy’s Hospital at the start of the largest immunization program in UK history. (Getty)

It has been tested on 44,000 participants in the United States, Germany, Argentina, Brazil, and South Africa.

What makes the Pfizer vaccine difficult is the requirement to store it at -70 ° C.

That temperature means it must be kept on dry ice, the supply of which is limited.

But Pfizer cautioned that the vaccine is not suitable for people with a history of severe allergic reactions, after two Britons fell ill after receiving the first dose.

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson speaks with Lyn Wheeler before receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine at Guy’s Hospital in London. (Getty)

Although it has been manufactured and financed by Pfizer, one of the world’s largest pharmaceutical companies, the vaccine itself was developed by the German company BioNTech.

The scientists behind the vaccine are Ugur Sahin and Ozlem Tureci, a German couple of Turkish descent.

AstraZeneca / University of Oxford

It has been shown to be up to 90% effective and, like most others, requires two punctures several weeks apart.

CSL will manufacture thirty million doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine in Australia.

Another 3.8 million are scheduled for delivery from abroad.

A researcher at a Jenner Institute laboratory in Oxford, England, works on the coronavirus vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford.
A researcher at a Jenner Institute laboratory in Oxford, England, works on the coronavirus vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford. (AP)

“We have coverage for the Australian population and we have enough to vaccinate the Australian population three times,” Health Minister Greg Hunt said last month.

AstraZeneca vaccine can be stored at normal refrigerator temperature.

Moderna has said it will deliver 20 million doses of its vaccine by the end of the year and another 125 million in the first four months of 2021.

The vaccine, developed in the United States, is 95 percent effective, although it will cost about $ 45 per dose.

But unlike Pfizer, Moderna’s vaccine can be kept at a much more manageable -20 ° C, meaning it could be stored in a standard home freezer.

The vaccine was funded in part by a donation from country music icon Dolly Parton.

Parton’s donation came from his friendship with Vanderbilt University physician Naji Abumrad, whom he met after being in a minor car accident.

Dolly Parton helped fund the Moderna coronavirus vaccine. (Getty)

Parton and Dr. Abumrad were bonded during their childhood growing up in poverty in a rural mountain area: Parton in Tennessee and Dr. Abumrad in Lebanon.

Australia does not have a pre-purchase agreement with Moderna, which means we are unlikely to see it here anytime soon.

A vaccine being developed by the University of Queensland shows positive signs, but phase three trials are not yet complete.

Because of this, it is too early to know how effective the vaccine is.

The University of Queensland has developed what they hope will be an effective vaccine against the coronavirus.
The University of Queensland has developed what they hope will be an effective vaccine against the coronavirus. (University of Queensland)

The vaccine, known as V451, is being manufactured in Victoria by CSL.

The Australian government agreed to buy 51 million doses.

If approved, a broader implementation could begin in mid-2021.

The vaccine has been 86 percent effective, according to a statement issued by the United Arab Emirates, which conducted a trial of 31,000 people.

It can also be kept at average refrigerator temperatures, making it much easier to store than the Pfizer alternative.

A staff member holds a sample of a possible COVID-19 vaccine at a SinoPharm production facility in Beijing. (Associated Press)

But both China and the United Arab Emirates have been cautious about the details of the trial results.

But they have said there are no serious side effects, and the leader of Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, was confident enough to get publicly vaccinated.

More than a million doses have already been shipped to Indonesia, and Morocco is using Sinopharm to launch its mass vaccination program.

Developed by Russia’s Gamaleya Institute, the two-shot vaccine is still officially in the testing stage.

Despite this, the Kremlin granted regulatory approval to Sputnik V in August, even though only a few dozen people had received it.

Now more than 100,000 Russians have already received Sputnik V.

Vladimir Putin has called for immunization with large-scale vaccines in Russia by next week. (SPUTNIK / AFP via Getty Images)

President Vladimir Putin announced a large-scale immunization campaign that will begin in the coming days, prioritizing doctors and teachers.

The developers said Sputnik V has been shown to be 91.4 percent effective.

Russia expects 1 billion doses to be produced in 2021, although priority will be given to Russians.

Sputnik V can be kept at normal refrigerator temperature and has an estimated cost of $ 13.50 per dose.


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